题目：Black hole spectroscopy: a status report
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According to general relativity, the remnant of a binary black hole merger should be a perturbed Kerr black hole. Perturbed Kerr black holes emit "ringdown" radiation which is well described by a superposition of quasinormal modes, with frequencies and damping times that depend only on the mass and spin of the remnant. The observation of gravitational radiation emitted by black hole mergers might finally provide direct evidence of black holes with the same certainty as, say, the 21 cm line identifies interstellar hydrogen. I will review the current status of this "black hole spectroscopy" program. I will focus on two important open issues: (1) Is the waveform well described by linear black hole perturbation theory? (2) What is the current observational status of black hole spectroscopy?
Emanuele Berti is a professor at Johns Hopkins University, Maryland. He is a theorist whose research interests include black holes, neutron stars, gravitational-wave astronomy, and astrophysical tests of general relativity. Berti obtained his Ph.D. at the Sapienza University of Rome in 2002 with a thesis supervised by Valeria Ferrari. He was a postdoctoral fellow at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki in Greece, the Institute of Astrophysics in Paris, Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, and NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California. In 2009 he joined the faculty at the University of Mississippi. He moved to Baltimore in 2018. Berti is a Fellow and current President of the International Society on General Relativity and Gravitation. He is also a Fellow of the American Physical Society (APS), a former Chair of its Division of Gravitational Physics, a Divisional Associate Editor in Gravitational Physics for Physical Review Letters, and the recipient of the 2023 APS Richard A. Isaacson Award in Gravitational-Wave Science. He serves the gravitational-wave community as a member of the LISA Science Group, of NASA's U.S. LISA Study Team, and of the Cosmic Explorer Scientific Advisory Committee. He has coauthored over 200 refereed papers.